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 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.

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Nikolas Krossley
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PostSubject: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 9:15 am

S.T.A.R.S.

The Nine S.T.A.R.S. Projects consisted of nine prototype A.N.G.E.L.S. class suits, designed by Mooch to enhance an Actual star.

Stars
Tactical
Assistance
Reactor
Suits

The project was designed to enhance a star to help Mooch in his dillema's for them actually being able to live life to their fullest.

Stars are all beings themselves, they just dont have natural moving bodies. Some of them anyway.
Mooch fixed this using this program.
Only nine were completed before Need to Live, and after that the project has yet to be restarted.

The nine Stars projects finished are.

Sol: The leader and father figure.
Polaris: 2nd In command and mother figure.
Rigel: The Jack of all trades, and eldest brother.
Sirius: The scout/Heavy hitter, Troubled Eldest sister.
Denebola: The sniper/Ranged weapons, Excited youngest sister.
Fomalhaut: The Tatition, Youngest brother Prodigy.
Castor: The assassin/Rogue, The quiet uncle.
Betelgeuse: The hothead warrior, Middle brother.
Arcturus: The honorable Warrior, Butler.

But included in the family.

Mooch: The Inventor, The Distant uncle.



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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 9:33 am

Arcturus
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combat:


Star Information:

is the brightest star in the constellation Boötes and in fact the northern celestial hemisphere. With a visual magnitude of −0.04, it is the fourth brightest star in the night sky, after −1.46 magnitude Sirius, −0.86 magnitude Canopus, and −0.27 magnitude Alpha Centauri. It is a relatively close star at only 36.7 light-years from Earth, and, together with Vega and Sirius, one of the most luminous stars in the Sun's neighborhood.
A type K1.5 IIIpe orange giant star, with an absolute magnitude of -0.30. It has likely exhausted its hydrogen and has begun fusing helium into oxygen and carbon in its core. It will continue to expand before sloughing off its outer shell and ending its life as a white dwarf inside a planetary nebula.

Bodily Information:
Arcturus knowing he would die, decided to accept Mooch's proposal to be in the S.T.A.R.S. program. Arcturus is honorable, and wise. The personal reason he accepted, was because he wanted to help defend the weak, and protect the needy. Out of the nine, hes seen as the straight man.

Height: approximately 6ft tall.

Main Weapon: Straight blade, Arc took up a Chinese blade fighting style, the beam is capable of burning through almost all but the strongest metals, he is capable of creating this blade from anywhere on his body, and if dropped it dissolves into Nanites and reforms to his body.

Secondary weapon: Improved Reactor output, Arc is probobly the most long lasting of the nine, capable of conserving the most energy in the heat of combat, However If needed two he can use this extra energy to easily over power almost any enemy.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 9:42 am

Betelgeuse
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combat:


Star Information:

is the eighth brightest star in the night sky and second brightest star in the constellation of Orion, outshining Rigel (Beta Orionis) only rarely. Distinctly reddish-tinted, it is a semiregular variable star whose apparent magnitude varies between 0.2 and 1.2, the widest range of any first magnitude star. The star marks the upper right vertex of the Winter Triangle asterism and the center of the Winter Hexagon.

Classified as a red supergiant of spectral type M2Iab, Betelgeuse is one of the largest and most luminous stars known. If it were at the center of the Solar System, its surface would extend past the asteroid belt possibly to the orbit of Jupiter and beyond, wholly engulfing Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Its distance in 2008 was estimated at 640 light-years, yielding a mean absolute magnitude of about −6.02. Less than 10 million years old, Betelgeuse has evolved rapidly because of its high mass. Having been ejected from its birthplace in the Orion OB1 Association—which also includes the late type O and B stars in Orion's belt, Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka—this crimson runaway has been observed racing through the interstellar medium at a supersonic speed of 30 km/sec, creating a bow shock over 4 light-years wide. Currently in a late stage of stellar evolution, the supergiant is expected to proceed through its expected life cycle before exploding as a type II supernova within the next million years.


Bodily Information:
For being a super giant, Betelgeuse is the shortest of the nine, Hes also the fastest. Bete accepted Mooch's proposal because he wanted to go out with a bang. Hes seen as the hothead of the group, first to abandon tatics at the sight of the biggest enemy, and to charge it head on.

Height: approximately 4ft tall.

Main Weapon: Spear, Bete accepted a spear fighting style, to suit his personality of charging in first, he likes to throw it into the enemy as he charges them. he is capable of creating this from anywhere on his body, and if dropped it dissolves into Nanites and reforms to his body.

Secondary weapon: Inter-weaved Nanite structure: Bete has his suits nanites extremely close together, making him weigh an amazing amount more then the others. This allows him to freely manipulate his bodies defense for speed ratio perfectly, Having them seperate or tighten at will.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 9:50 am

Castor



Star Information:

is the second brightest star in the constellation Gemini and one of the brightest stars in the night sky. Although it has the Bayer designation "alpha", it is actually fainter than Beta Geminorum (Pollux). Castor is 49.8 light years away from Earth.
was discovered to be a visual binary in 1678, with the magnitude of its components being 2.0 and 2.9 (the combined magnitude is 1.58). The separation of the components is about 6", and the period of revolution is around 467 years. Each of the components of Castor is itself a spectroscopic binary, making Castor a quadruple star system. Castor has a faint companion separated from it by about 72" but having the same parallax and proper motion; this companion is an eclipsing binary system with a period slightly less than 1 day, and it is one of only a few known eclipsing binary systems where both companions are class M dwarf stars. Castor can thus be considered to be a sextuple star system,[9] with six individual stars gravitationally bound together. Component C has the variable star designation YY Geminorum.


Bodily Information:
Castor is the rogue of the group, the silent. And probably the second most deadly. Hes quiet, cold headed and is always plotting against his enemies. Castor accepted Mooch's proposal because he wanted to know what it was actually like to move. Among the group Castor is regarded as the special operations man, If it involves stealth in some way, you go to Castor.

Height: approximately 6ft tall.

Main Weapon: Daggers, Castor prefers to use daggers as his primary weapon, both thrown and for stabbing his enemies in the back. The beam is capable of burning through almost all but the strongest metals, he is capable of creating this blade from anywhere on his body, and if dropped it dissolves into Nanites and reforms to his body.

Secondary weapon: Multiple Body Control. Castor is the only one of the Nine with the ability to replicate himself perfectly, allowing for a more stealthy group. All of the information one Castor body obtains, the rest obtain. Its easy to say hes probably the best assassin due to this and his equipment.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 10:00 am

Fomalhaut
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Combat:


Star Information:
is the brightest star in the constellation Piscis Austrinus and one of the brightest stars in the sky. Fomalhaut can be seen low in the southern sky in the northern hemisphere in fall and early winter evenings. Near latitude 50˚N, it sets around the time Sirius rises, and does not reappear until Antares sets. Its name derives from Arabic fum al-ḥawt, meaning "mouth of the [Southern] Fish" (فُمْ اَلْحَوْتْ).
This is a class A star on the main sequence approximately 25 light-years (7.7 pc) from Earth as measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite.[6] Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.[7] It is classified as a Vega-like star that emits excess infrared radiation, indicating it is surrounded by a circumstellar disk. Fomalhaut and the K-type star TW Piscis Austrini constitute a binary system.[2]
Fomalhaut holds a special significance in extrasolar planet research, as it is the center of the first stellar system with an extrasolar planet (Fomalhaut b) imaged at visible wavelengths. The image was published in Science in November 2008.[8] It is the third brightest star known to have an orbiting planet, after Pollux and the Sun.
Fomalhaut was a later designation of 79 Aquarii

Fomalhaut is a young star, for many years thought to be only 100 to 300 million years old, with a potential lifespan of a billion years.


Bodily Information:
Formalhaut, accepted Mooch's proposal for the reason of existing. He just wanted a body, and to do things. Forma is regarded as a "Child" Progidy amongst the Nine, being one of the youngest. He is tatically inclined, prone to thinking three to five steps ahead of the enemy. Outside of combat he is seen as the jokester, and witty comeback kid. Hes the groups tatiction.

Height: approximately 6ft tall.

Main Weapon: Hau fights with a double bladed sword, capable of splitting in half allowing him to fight off multiple enemies at once. The beam is capable of burning through almost all but the strongest metals, he is capable of creating this blade from anywhere on his body, and if dropped it dissolves into Nanites and reforms to his body.

Secondary weapon: Heat Manipulation, Hau is capable of outputting extreme amounts of heat, or capable of abosrbing it. Using this he controls the area around hims temperture to throw his enemies off guard.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 10:13 am

Denebola
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Combat:


Star Information:
is the second brightest star in the zodiac constellation of Leo. It is an A-type main sequence star with 75% more mass than the Sun and twelve times the Sun's luminosity. Based on parallax measurements from the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, the star is at a distance of about 36 light-years (11 parsecs) from Earth.[1] Its apparent visual magnitude is 2.14, making it readily visible to the naked eye. Denebola is a Delta Scuti type variable star, meaning its luminosity varies very slightly over a period of a few hours.

Denebola is a relatively young star with an age estimated at less than 400 million years.


Bodily Information:
Dene, Is seen as the younger sister of the nine. She tends to be excited for no reason most of the time, and is the one of the group that refuses to shut up unless needed too. She is the ranged weapon specialist, and is the one that takes out the enemies lookouts. She seen as the sniper of the group, and everyone strives to protect her.

Height: approximately 4ft tall.

Main Weapon: 8 Bit cannon, Dene's cannon breaks down into 8 pieces, which are technicly part of her suit's body. They float around her serving no purpose until she wants them too. Able to be used quickly as a melee weapon used as a staff capable of changing size. The Cannon the main weapon, is used as a sniper rifle if using all 8 bits, or a assault rifle for four bits, allowing her to duel wield Assault rifles if needed.

Secondary weapon: Enhanced Reflex skills, Dene has increased relfexes and motor skills. Allowing her to seemingly stop time for secounds and to nimbly dodge oncoming attacks.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 10:27 am

Polaris
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Combat:


Star Information:
Polaris (α UMi, α Ursae Minoris, Alpha Ursae Minoris, commonly North Star, Northern Star or Pole Star, also Lodestar, sometimes Guiding star) is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor. It is very close to the north celestial pole, making it the current northern pole star.
Based on measurements from the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, Polaris is estimated to be at a distance of about 434 light-years from Earth. It is a multiple star, consisting of the main star α UMi A, two smaller companions, α UMi B and α UMi Ab, and two distant components α UMi C and α UMi D. α UMi B was discovered in 1780 by William Herschel.

Research reported in Science suggests that Polaris is 2.5 times brighter today than when Ptolemy observed it, changing from third to its current second magnitude. Astronomer Edward Guinan considers this to be a remarkable rate of change and is on record as saying that "If they are real, these changes are 100 times larger than [those] predicted by current theories of stellar evolution."


Bodily Information:
Polaris, also known as Laris, is seen as the mother figure amongst the nine. She is second in command. All decisions go to her first. She is motherly, and value's the nine's lives more then the missions they go on together. She accepted Mooch's proposal because she wanted to know what it was like to watch things grow and to take part in the growing of life.

Height: approximately 5ft tall.

Main Weapon: Physical durability, Laris took up a mixed Martial arts fighting style, being the only member of the nine who uses her fists, due to this she needed to reinforce her bodys structure and she did, she is easily the most durable of the nine.

Secondary weapon: Neo-Wave energy manipulation, Laris was provided with a generator capable of manipulating Neo-wave particles and Energy, capable of bending the beams or deflecting particles fired at her. It was originally designed to allow her to use the energy from the nines weapons to heal them if needed, but she immedatly found a defensive purpose for it.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 10:36 am

Rigel
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Combat:


Star Information:

Rigel (β Ori, β Orionis, Beta Orionis) is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the sixth brightest star in the sky, with visual magnitude 0.18. Although it has the Bayer designation "beta", it is almost always brighter than Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse). Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.

It is a blue supergiant, at about 18 solar masses shining with approximately 117,000 times the luminosity of the Sun

Bodily Information:
Rigel, is the older brother of Bete, and tends to be Bete's conscious and protector. Rigel is seen as the oldest son out of the nine, and he takes the job with honor and pride. He always tries to make a good impression on the Nine. And he always tries his best. Incombat Rigel is seen as the Jack of all trades, capable of doing anything, but specializing in nothing.

Height: approximately 6ft tall.

Main Weapon: Multiple weapon specialities: Rigel is the groups weapons master. His unique suit is capable of forming any weapon he wishes it too, and then reform it, or allow it to reform to his body and make new ones from his hands.

Secondary weapon: Illumin Reactor, Rigel has an enhanced core that burns brightest. He uses this to blind his enemies and take advantage of their surprise.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 10:47 am

Sirius

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Combat:


Star Information:

Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, it is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. The name "Sirius" is derived from the Ancient Greek: Σείριος Seirios ("glowing" or "scorcher"). The star has the Bayer designation Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, called Sirius B. The distance separating Sirius A from its companion varies between 8.1 and 31.5 AU.

Sirius appears bright because of both its intrinsic luminosity and its proximity to Earth. At a distance of 2.6 parsecs (8.6 ly), as determined by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, the Sirius system is one of Earth's near neighbors; for Northern-hemisphere observers between 30 degrees and 73 degrees of latitude (including almost all of Europe and North America), it is the closest star (after the Sun) that can be seen with a naked eye. Sirius is gradually moving closer to the Solar System, so it will slightly increase in brightness over the next 60,000 years. After that time its distance will begin to recede, but it will continue to be the brightest star in the Earth's sky for the next 210,000 years.

Sirius A is about twice as massive as the Sun and has an absolute visual magnitude of 1.42. It is 25 times more luminous than the Sun but has a significantly lower luminosity than other bright stars such as Canopus or Rigel. The system is between 200 and 300 million years old. It was originally composed of two bright bluish stars. The more massive of these, Sirius B, consumed its resources and became a red giant before shedding its outer layers and collapsing into its current state as a white dwarf around 120 million years ago.

Sirius is also known colloquially as the "Dog Star", reflecting its prominence in its constellation, Canis Major (Greater Dog). The heliacal rising of Sirius marked the flooding of the Nile in Ancient Egypt and the "dog days" of summer for the ancient Greeks, while to the Polynesians it marked winter and was an important star for navigation around the Pacific Ocean.

Bodily Information:
Siri, is seen within the group as the troubled older sister. Siri has issues, mainly emotional and social issues, She rarely talks to anyone outside the family of the Nine and Mooch, and she is rarely seen. Siri inside combat is the groups scout and decoy. However she is easily one of the more powerfull ones of the nine, and can be considered the heavy hitter.


Height: approximately 4ft tall.

Main Weapon: Shadow Structure, Siri's nanites are made of a special metal made from a man made type of Dark matter, and is used to manipulate her bodies structure at will, and manipulate shadows. Its always assumed she just has a dark aura around her, but its more likely its her nanites populating the air and making it dark ready to defend her at a moments notice.

Secondary weapon: Minion reconstruction, Siri has the ability to use her nanites to make animals, Normally wolves to defend herself, however it is not limited to this and can be any animal, perfectly. However pitch black.


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PostSubject: Re: 9 S.T.A.R.S Project Information.    Fri Sep 07, 2012 11:14 am

Sol
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Combat:


Star Information:
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields.[12][13] It has a diameter of about 1,392,684 km,[5] about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about 2×1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[14] Chemically, about three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. The remainder (1.69%, which nonetheless equals 5,628 times the mass of Earth) consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron, among others.[15]

The Sun's stellar classification, based on spectral class, is G2V, and is informally designated as a yellow dwarf, because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum and although its color is white, from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light.[16] In the spectral class label, G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C), and V indicates that the Sun, like most stars, is a main-sequence star, and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. In its core, the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star, the Sun is now thought to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy, most of which are red dwarfs.[17][18] The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4.83; however, as the star closest to Earth, the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of −26.74.[19][20] The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind, a stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind, the heliosphere, is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System.[21][22]

The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone, within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at approximately 4.2 light-years away), the Sun ranks fourth in mass.[23]

The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24,000–26,000 light-years from the galactic center, completing one clockwise orbit, as viewed from the galactic north pole, in about 225–250 million years. Since our galaxy is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of the constellation Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s, the Sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about 370 km/s in the direction of Crater or Leo.[24]

The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149.6 million kilometers (1 AU), though the distance varies as the Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.[25] At this average distance, light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds.

The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis,[26] and drives Earth's climate and weather. The enormous effect of the Sun on the Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, and the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun developed slowly, and as recently as the 19th century prominent scientists had little knowledge of the Sun's physical composition and source of energy. This understanding is still developing; there are a number of present-day anomalies in the Sun's behavior that remain unexplained.

The English proper noun Sun developed from Old English sunne (around 725, attested in Beowulf), and may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, sonne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, and Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn.[27][28]

In relation, the Sun is personified as a goddess in Germanic paganism; Sól/Sunna.[28] Scholars theorize that the Sun, as Germanic goddess, may represent an extension of an earlier Proto-Indo-European sun deity due to Indo-European linguistic connections between Old Norse Sól, Sanskrit Surya, Gaulish Sulis, Lithuanian Saulė, and Slavic Solntse.[28]

The English weekday name Sunday is attested in Old English (Sunnandæg; "Sun's day", from before 700) and is ultimately a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek heméra helíou.[29] The Latin name for the star, Sol, is widely known but is not common in general English language use; the adjectival form is the related word solar.[30][31] The term sol is also used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars.[32] A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, while a mean Martian 'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds.

The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star comprising about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. It is a near-perfect sphere, with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths,[34] which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 km.[35] As the Sun consists of a plasma and is not solid, it rotates faster at its equator than at its poles. This behavior is known as differential rotation, and is caused by convection in the Sun and the movement of mass, due to steep temperature gradients from the core outwards. This mass carries a portion of the Sun’s counter-clockwise angular momentum, as viewed from the ecliptic north pole, thus redistributing the angular velocity.

The period of this actual rotation is approximately 25.6 days at the equator and 33.5 days at the poles. However, due to our constantly changing vantage point from the Earth as it orbits the Sun, the apparent rotation of the star at its equator is about 28 days.[36] The centrifugal effect of this slow rotation is 18 million times weaker than the surface gravity at the Sun's equator. The tidal effect of the planets is even weaker, and does not significantly affect the shape of the Sun.[37]

The Sun is a Population I, or heavy element-rich,[a] star.[38] The formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae.[39] This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II (heavy element-poor) stars. These elements could most plausibly have been produced by endergonic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption inside a massive second-generation star.[38]

The Sun does not have a definite boundary as rocky planets do, and in its outer parts the density of its gases drops exponentially with increasing distance from its center.[40] Nevertheless, it has a well-defined interior structure, described below. The Sun's radius is measured from its center to the edge of the photosphere. This is simply the layer above which the gases are too cool or too thin to radiate a significant amount of light, and is therefore the surface most readily visible to the naked eye.[41]

The solar interior is not directly observable, and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation. However, just as seismology uses waves generated by earthquakes to reveal the interior structure of the Earth, the discipline of helioseismology makes use of pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun's interior to measure and visualize the star's inner structure.[42] Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deeper layers.

The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius.[43] It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3[44][45] (about 150 times the density of water) and a temperature of close to 15.7 million kelvin (K). By contrast, the Sun's surface temperature is approximately 5,800 K. Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone.[43] Through most of the Sun's life, energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium.[46] Only 0.8% of the energy generated in the Sun comes from the CNO cycle.[47]

The core is the only region in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of thermal energy through fusion; inside 24% of the Sun's radius, 99% of the power has been generated, and by 30% of the radius, fusion has stopped nearly entirely. The rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core and the layers just outside. The energy produced by fusion in the core must then travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles.[48][49]
The proton–proton chain occurs around 9.2×1037 times each second in the core of the Sun. Since this reaction uses four free protons (hydrogen nuclei), it converts about 3.7×1038 protons to alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8.9×1056 free protons in the Sun), or about 6.2×1011 kg per second.[49] Since fusing hydrogen into helium releases around 0.7% of the fused mass as energy,[50] the Sun releases energy at the mass-energy conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second, 384.6 yotta watts (3.846×1026 W),[1] or 9.192×1010 megatons of TNT per second.

This mass is not destroyed to create the energy, rather, the mass is carried away in the radiated energy, as described by the concept of mass-energy equivalence.

The power production by fusion in the core varies with distance from the solar center. At the center of the Sun, theoretical models estimate it to be approximately 276.5 watts/m3,[51] a power production density that more nearly approximates reptile metabolism than a thermonuclear bomb.[b] Peak power production in the Sun has been compared to the volumetric heats generated in an active compost heap. The tremendous power output of the Sun is not due to its high power per volume, but instead due to its large size.

The fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers, reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation; and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly, increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level.[52][53]

The gamma rays (high-energy photons) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only a few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction and at slightly lower energy. Therefore it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface. Estimates of the photon travel time range between 10,000 and 170,000 years.[54] In contrast, it takes only 2.3 seconds for the neutrinos, which account for about 2% of the total energy production of the Sun, to reach the surface. Since energy transport in the Sun is a process which involves photons in thermodynamic equilibrium with matter, the time scale of energy transport in the Sun is longer, on the order of 30,000,000 years. This is the time it would take the Sun to return to a stable state if the rate of energy generation in its core were suddenly to be changed.[55]

After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent surface of the photosphere, the photons escape as visible light. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million photons of visible light before escaping into space. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they rarely interact with matter, so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were lower than theories predicted by a factor of 3. This discrepancy was resolved in 2001 through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory, but neutrino detectors were missing 2⁄3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor by the time they were detected.[56]

Below about 0.7 solar radii, solar material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward.[57] This zone is free of thermal convection; while the material gets cooler from 7 to about 2 million kelvin with increasing altitude, this temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection.[45] Energy is transferred by radiation—ions of hydrogen and helium emit photons, which travel only a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions.[57] The density drops a hundredfold (from 20 g/cm3 to only 0.2 g/cm3) from 0.25 solar radii to the top of the radiative zone.[57]

The radiative zone and the convection form a transition layer, the tachocline. This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive horizontal layers slide past one another.[58] The fluid motions found in the convection zone above, slowly disappear from the top of this layer to its bottom, matching the calm characteristics of the radiative zone on the bottom. Presently, it is hypothesized (see Solar dynamo), that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field.

In the Sun's outer layer, from its surface down to approximately 200,000 km (or 70% of the solar radius), the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the thermal energy of the interior outward through radiation; in other words it is opaque enough. As a result, thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. Once the material cools off at the surface, it plunges downward to the base of the convection zone, to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. At the visible surface of the Sun, the temperature has dropped to 5,700 K and the density to only 0.2 g/m3 (about 1/6,000th the density of air at sea level).[45]

The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun as the solar granulation and supergranulation. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior causes a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun.[45] The Sun's thermal columns are Bénard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms

The visible surface of the Sun, the photosphere, is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light.[60] Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space, and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of H− ions, which absorb visible light easily.[60] Conversely, the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H− ions.[61][62] The photosphere is tens to hundreds of kilometers thick, being slightly less opaque than air on Earth. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part, an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk, in a phenomenon known as limb darkening.[60] Sunlight has approximately a black-body spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6,000 K, interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (this is about 0.37% of the particle number per volume of Earth's atmosphere at sea level; however, photosphere particles are electrons and protons, so the average particle in air is 58 times as heavy).[57]

During early studies of the optical spectrum of the photosphere, some absorption lines were found that did not correspond to any chemical elements then known on Earth. In 1868, Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were because of a new element which he dubbed helium, after the Greek Sun god Helios. It was not until 25 years later that helium was isolated on Earth.

The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere.[60] They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio through visible light to gamma rays, and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum, the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona, and the heliosphere.[60] The heliosphere, which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause, where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun.[60] The reason has not been conclusively proven; evidence suggests that Alfvén waves may have enough energy to heat the corona.[64]

The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere, with a temperature of about 4,100 K.[60] This part of the Sun is cool enough to support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water, which can be detected by their absorption spectra.[65]
Above the temperature minimum layer is a layer about 2,000 km thick, dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines.[60] It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun.[57] The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude, ranging up to around 20,000 K near the top.[60] In the upper part of chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized.

Above the chromosphere, in a thin (about 200 km) transition region, the temperature rises rapidly from around 20,000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1,000,000 K.[67] The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region, which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma.[66] The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. Rather, it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments, and is in constant, chaotic motion.[57] The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface, but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the extreme ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.[68]

The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind, which fills all the Solar System.[69] The low corona, near the surface of the Sun, has a particle density around 1015–1016 m−3.[66][c] The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1,000,000–2,000,000 K; however, in the hottest regions it is 8,000,000–20,000,000 K.[67] While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona, at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection.[67][69]

The heliosphere, which is the cavity around the Sun filled with the solar wind plasma, extends from approximately 20 solar radii (0.1 AU) to the outer fringes of the Solar System. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvénic—that is, where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfvén waves.[70] Turbulence and dynamic forces outside this boundary cannot affect the shape of the solar corona within, because the information can only travel at the speed of Alfvén waves. The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere, forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape,[69] until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. In December 2004, the Voyager 1 probe passed through a shock front that is thought to be part of the heliopause. Both of the Voyager probes have recorded higher levels of energetic particles as they approach the boundary.

The Sun is a magnetically active star. It supports a strong, changing magnetic field that varies year-to-year and reverses direction about every eleven years around solar maximum.[73] The Sun's magnetic field leads to many effects that are collectively called solar activity, including sunspots on the surface of the Sun, solar flares, and variations in solar wind that carry material through the Solar System.[74] Effects of solar activity on Earth include auroras at moderate to high latitudes, and the disruption of radio communications and electric power. Solar activity is thought to have played a large role in the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Solar activity changes the structure of Earth's outer atmosphere.[75]

All matter in the Sun is in the form of gas and plasma because of its high temperatures. This makes it possible for the Sun to rotate faster at its equator (about 25 days) than it does at higher latitudes (about 35 days near its poles). The differential rotation of the Sun's latitudes causes its magnetic field lines to become twisted together over time, causing magnetic field loops to erupt from the Sun's surface and trigger the formation of the Sun's dramatic sunspots and solar prominences (see magnetic reconnection). This twisting action creates the solar dynamo and an 11-year solar cycle of magnetic activity as the Sun's magnetic field reverses itself about every 11 years.[76][77]

The solar magnetic field extends well beyond the Sun itself. The magnetized solar wind plasma carries Sun's magnetic field into the space forming what is called the interplanetary magnetic field.[69] Since the plasma can only move along the magnetic field lines, the interplanetary magnetic field is initially stretched radially away from the Sun. Because the fields above and below the solar equator have different polarities pointing towards and away from the Sun, there exists a thin current layer in the solar equatorial plane, which is called the heliospheric current sheet.[69] At the large distances the rotation of the Sun twists the magnetic field and the current sheet into the Archimedean spiral like structure called the Parker spiral.[69] The interplanetary magnetic field is much stronger than the dipole component of the solar magnetic field. The Sun's 50–400 μT (in the photosphere) magnetic dipole field reduces with the cube of the distance to about 0.1 nT at the distance of the Earth. However, according to spacecraft observations the interplanetary field at the Earth's location is about 100 times greater at around 5 nT

The Sun is composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium; they account for 74.9% and 23.8% of the mass of the Sun in the photosphere, respectively.[79] All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2% of the mass. The most abundant metals are oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%).[80]

The Sun inherited its chemical composition from the interstellar medium out of which it formed: the hydrogen and helium in the Sun were produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The metals were produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in generations of stars which completed their stellar evolution and returned their material to the interstellar medium before the formation of the Sun.[81] The chemical composition of the photosphere is normally considered representative of the composition of the primordial Solar System.[82] However, since the Sun formed, the helium and heavy elements have settled out of the photosphere. Therefore, the photosphere now contains slightly less helium and only 84% of the heavy elements than the protostellar Sun did; the protostellar Sun was 71.1% hydrogen, 27.4% helium, and 1.5% metals.[79]

In the inner portions of the Sun, nuclear fusion has modified the composition by converting hydrogen into helium, so the innermost portion of the Sun is now roughly 60% helium, with the metal abundance unchanged. Because the interior of the Sun is radiative, not convective (see Radiative zone above), none of the fusion products from the core have risen to the photosphere.[83]

The solar heavy-element abundances described above are typically measured both using spectroscopy of the Sun's photosphere and by measuring abundances in meteorites that have never been heated to melting temperatures. These meteorites are thought to retain the composition of the protostellar Sun and thus not affected by settling of heavy elements. The two methods generally agree well.

Singly ionized iron group elements
In the 1970s, much research focused on the abundances of iron group elements in the Sun.[84][85] Although significant research was done, the abundance determination of some iron group elements (e.g., cobalt and manganese) was still difficult at least as far as 1978 because of their hyperfine structures.[84]
The first largely complete set of oscillator strengths of singly ionized iron group elements were made available first in the 1960s,[86] and improved oscillator strengths were computed in 1976.[87] In 1978 the abundances of 'Singly Ionized' elements of the iron group were derived.[84]

Solar and planetary mass fractionation relationship

Various authors have considered the existence of a mass fractionation relationship between the isotopic compositions of solar and planetary noble gases,[88] for example correlations between isotopic compositions of planetary and solar neon and xenon.[89] Nevertheless, the belief that the whole Sun has the same composition as the solar atmosphere was still widespread, at least until 1983.[90]

In 1983, it was claimed that it was the fractionation in the Sun itself that caused the fractionation relationship between the isotopic compositions of planetary and solar wind implanted noble gases.

The Sun was formed about 4.57 billion years ago from the collapse of part of a giant molecular cloud that consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium and which probably gave birth to many other stars.[99] This age is estimated using computer models of stellar evolution and through nucleocosmochronology.[9] The result is consistent with the radiometric date of the oldest Solar System material, at 4.567 billion years ago.[100][101] Studies of ancient meteorites reveal traces of stable daughter nuclei of short-lived isotopes, such as iron-60, that only form in exploding, short-lived stars. This indicates that one or more supernovae must have occurred near the location where the Sun formed.

A shock wave from a nearby supernova would have triggered the formation of the Sun by compressing the gases within the molecular cloud, and causing certain regions to collapse under their own gravity.[102] As one fragment of the cloud collapsed it also began to rotate due to conservation of angular momentum and heat up with the increasing pressure. Much of the mass became concentrated in the center, while the rest flattened out into a disk which would become the planets and other solar system bodies. Gravity and pressure within the core of the cloud generated a lot of heat as it accreted more gas from the surrounding disk, eventually triggering nuclear fusion. Thus, our Sun was born.

The Sun is about halfway through its main-sequence stage, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium. Each second, more than four million tonnes of matter are converted into energy within the Sun's core, producing neutrinos and solar radiation. At this rate, the Sun has so far converted around 100 Earth-masses of matter into energy. The Sun will spend a total of approximately 10 billion years as a main-sequence star.[103]

The Sun does not have enough mass to explode as a supernova. Instead, in about 5 billion years, it will enter a red giant phase. Its outer layers will expand as the hydrogen fuel at the core is consumed and the core will contract and heat up. Hydrogen fusion will continue along a shell surrounding a helium core, which will steadily expand as more helium is produced. Once the core temperature reaches around 100 million kelvin, helium fusion at the core will begin producing carbon, and the Sun will enter the asymptotic giant branch phase.[38] Following the red giant phase, intense thermal pulsations will cause the Sun to throw off its outer layers, forming a planetary nebula. The only object that will remain after the outer layers are ejected is the extremely hot stellar core, which will slowly cool and fade as a white dwarf over many billions of years. This stellar evolution scenario is typical of low- to medium-mass stars.

Earth's fate

Earth's ultimate fate is precarious. As a red giant, the Sun will have a maximum radius beyond the Earth's current orbit, 1 AU (1.5×1011 m), 250 times the present radius of the Sun.[106] However, by the time it is an asymptotic giant branch star, the Sun will have lost roughly 30% of its present mass due to a stellar wind, so the orbits of the planets will move outward. If it were only for this, Earth would probably be spared, but new research suggests that Earth will be swallowed by the Sun owing to tidal interactions.[106] Even if Earth should escape incineration in the Sun, still all its water will be boiled away and most of its atmosphere will escape into space. Even during its current life in the main sequence, the Sun is gradually becoming more luminous (about 10% every 1 billion years), and its surface temperature is slowly rising. The Sun used to be fainter in the past, which is possibly the reason life on Earth has only existed for about 1 billion years on land. The increase in solar temperatures is such that in about another billion years the surface of the Earth will likely become too hot for liquid water to exist, ending all terrestrial life


Bodily Information:
Sol, is easily described as..The body of Fraides Ego, because that is what the sun is. We're not sure which Sun he is, or where his star self is located. But we know its him from his personality. Hes seen as the father figure and is the groups leader. Witty quiet and reserved Sol has a very relaxed demeanor and has an air of simply being better than those around him. He is a very likeable guy until he gets angry then he becomes a monster instilling fear with a glance then everyone around him becomes insignificant no more noticeable than the dirt he steps on.

Height: approximately 8ft tall.

Main Weapon: Guan Dao, a beam Guan Dao, The beam is capable of burning through almost all but the strongest metals, he is capable of creating this blade from anywhere on his body, and if dropped it dissolves into Nanites and reforms to his body. Like he can Drop it hah perfect grip.

Secondary weapon: Perfect Kanabō, a large Kanabō that only he can weild, that burns as hot as a thousand suns, and radiates the light of all the hopes of mankind!
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